This easily made the event the greatest 2 or 3 minutes of free advertising in history——for Li Ning, but not for Adidas. Li Ning was broadcast on Chinese state tele- vision, countless other international channels, and was featured on the front page of every national newspaper in China the following day. Consumer attitudes are also ambivalent. A summary of the results for four offering categories considered in the study is presented in Table 1. Almost ev- eryone in China knew that Li Ning owned a sports shoe company; outside of the country, the many hundreds of millions who did not know this learned it very quickly. At the Tokyo Olympiad, for example, the last torchbearer was a person born on the day the atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima. So, for example, in the credit card category, re- spondents were required to indicate on the point scale how likely they would be to recommend both the sponsor Visa and the brand regarded as its major competitor MasterCard.
Almost ev- eryone in China knew that Li Ning owned a sports shoe company; outside of the country, the many hundreds of millions who did not know this learned it very quickly. Capitalizing on his personal brand equity, he founded Li Ning, an athletic apparel company that specialized in clothing and footwear. The scale may also measure purchase intention, as well as product quality. Indeed, Reichheld , p. Consumer attitudes are also ambivalent. Aschema is a cognitive framework for understand- ing and remembering information, and expectations based on it will affect the judgment, memory, and use of new information Mandler, We received a total of 1, completed surveys see Appendix for details. Propensity to recommend the brand A single-item scale was used to measure the likeli- hood of a respondent recommending a particular brand to others. In a broader sense, he sees the L. These con- cepts can help explain the cognitive mechanisms behind successful ambush marketing, as well as the potential pitfalls of certain preventative strategies. So, for example, in the credit card category, re- spondents were required to indicate on the point scale how likely they would be to recommend both the sponsor Visa and the brand regarded as its major competitor MasterCard. Berthon , petersteyn gmail. Some might call the Li Ning coup lucky. Li Ning was broadcast on Chinese state tele- vision, countless other international channels, and was featured on the front page of every national newspaper in China the following day. At the same time, it exposes itself to an array of counter-attacks by competitors who have either chosen not to exploit the sponsor- ship opportunity, or who have simply not had the resources to do so. The survey was conducted during the 3 days immediately following the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games, using the China national online consumer panel of Global Market Insite GMI , among individuals aged 18 and older. Ambush marketing is clearly effective; its ubiquity attests to this. High scores on the scale suggest that the respondent has a positive evaluation of a particular product or brand to which they have been exposed. Since retiring from gymnastics, he had also become a successful entrepreneur. In the study under focus here, a comparison was only made between the two major competitors in a category; for example, in the credit card category, respond- ents were required to complete the 8-item scale for both the sponsor Visa and the brand regarded as its major competitor MasterCard. At the Tokyo Olympiad, for example, the last torchbearer was a person born on the day the atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima. Parent , pberthon bentley. Now, ambush marketing perturbed not only sports bodies such as the IOC; host cities and even entire nations became galvanized by what was perceived as a threat to local integrity. Why does ambush marketing work? Despite the efforts of event organizers and legislation enacted by host governments whether genuine or sham to protect sponsors, it seems that some competitor reaction is inevitable.
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